Acknowledgements, Sources, and Further Reading


The Bulkley Valley Museum acknowledges that it is located on the traditional unceded territory of the Witsuwit'en. 

We would also like to acknowledge the financial support of the Town of Smithers, the Regional District of Bulkley-Nechako, and the Government of British Columbia through the BC Arts Council and the Community Gaming Grant.

Thank you to Melanie Morin from the Witsuwit'en Language and Culture Society for reviewing text from the exhibit in 2018.


"British Columbia First Nations and the Influenza Pandemic of 1918-19," Mary-Ellen Kelm, BC Studies No. 122, Summer 1999 

"Death from 1918 pandemic influenza during the First World War: a perspective from personal and anectotal evidence," Peter C. Wever and Leo van Bergen, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, pub. by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 2014

"'Destroyer and Teacher': Managing the Masses During the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic," Nancy Tomes, Public Health Reports, 2010 Supplement 3, Volume 125

"The Duty of the Nation: Public Health and the Spanish Influenza in Canada, 1918-19," Mark Osborne Humphries, thesis for Graduate Program in History/PhD in Philosophy, The University of Western Ontario, 2008

Epidemic Encounters: Influenza, Society, and Culture in Canada, 1918-20, ed. by Magda Fahrni and Esyllt W. Jones, UBC Press, 2012 

"Epidemic and Public Health: Influenza in Vancouver, 1918-1919," Margaret W. Andrews, BC Studies No. 34, Summer 1977

"The Medical Battery in the United States (1870-1920): Electrotherapy at Home and in the Clinic," Anna Wexler, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2017, Oxford University Press

Niwhts'ide'nï Hibi'it'ën: The Ways of Our Ancestors, second edition, Melanie H. Morin, School District #54 Bulkley Valley, Smithers, B.C., 2016.

"Paths of Infection: The First World War and the Origins of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic," Mark Osborne Humphries, War in History 21(1) 55-81, 2013

Shared Histories: Witsuwit'en-Settler Relations in Smithers, British Columbia, 1913-1973, Tyler McCreary, Creekstone Press Ltd., Smithers, B.C., 2018

Smithers: From Swamp to Village, R. Lynn Shervill, pub. by The Town of Smithers, printed and bound by D.W. Friesen & Sons Ltd., 1981

"The Spanish Flu in Hazelton," Geoffrey Mynett, author's excerpt from biography of Dr. Horace Wrinch, Service at the Skeena (Ronsdale Press, Vancouver, British Columbia, 2019).


Interior News (, Bulkley Valley Museum archival collection)

Omineca Daily Herald (microfilm, Bulkley Valley Museum archival collection)

Photographs and Documents

BC Archives 

Bulkley Valley Museum Visual Record Collection

Dirk Mendel 

Library and Archives Canada

Otis Historical Archives, Nat'l Museum of Health & Medicine

Rensselear County Tuberculosis Association, Troy, N.Y.

Acknowledgements, Sources, and Further Reading